It turns out that breed differences in behavior are highly heritable, which is interesting since it’s impossible to define between-population heritability ( it is so written) . But although philosophically impossible to define, it’s apparently fairly easy to calculate.
Gene implicated in these behavioral differences between breeds include candidate domestication genes, genes mapped to phenotypes implicated in domestication, genes that show up in those foxes bred for tameness or aggression, and genes that underwent positive selection in both human evolution and dog domestication – which probably means human domestication and dog domestication.
“For example, breed differences in aggression are associated with multiple genes that have been linked to aggressive behavior in humans. Molecular associations with breed differences in energy include genes previously linked to resting heart rate, daytime rest, and sleep duration in humans. Lastly, breed differences in fear were associated with genes linked with temperament and startle response in humans, and several of the genes implicated in breed differences in trainability have been previously associated with
intelligence and information processing speed in humans.”
Interestingly, genotype accounts for more of the behavioral variation between breeds than it does within breeds. Like humans, most genetic variation in dogs is within-breed rather than between-breed ( 85%-15% in humans, 70% to 30% in dogs), but that whole-genome number does not matter: what matters is the distribution of the particular genes that influence behavioral traits, not neutral or behaviorally-irrelevant genes.
You can’t say any of these things without detailed understanding of the causal mechanisms, just as we could not eat anything until we’d learned that edible sugars are right-handed molecules while amino acids are left-handed.
As for comparing dog breeds and human races, wrong because too obvious.